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【新闻】小直径钻头正确使用方法及注意事项1激光模组

发布时间:2020-10-19 03:57:22 阅读: 来源:滑轨厂家

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>直径小于<SPAN lang=EN-US>3.175mm的钻头,通常称为微钻。要使微钻在使用中发挥高效率,必须考虑一系列因素:如钻头本身的各项要素、加工参数、孔深、安装的完善性及工件的结构等。要把这些相互影响又对钻削过程十分敏感的因素处理好,需要有科学的创新精神。&nbsp;<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>Guhring(美国)公司的市场部经理Mark&nbsp;Megal说:“在很多场合,使用微钻你得边琢磨边干。”&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>尽管目前工具制造商已经在微钻的材料和几何参数方面完成了很多开发,不需要每件事都从头试验,但是要把钻削过程中诸多因素都加以很好控制,仍然不是一项简单的工作。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20.1pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.05pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><FONT face=宋体><STRONG><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: teal; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">微钻的长径比显著加大</SPAN></STRONG><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: teal; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>众所周知,钻头的长度和直径之比越大,其弯曲倾向增加。减小长径比,可以减小挠曲力,从而避免钻头折断和孔径误差加大。较深的孔要求钻头有较大的长径比。通常孔深超过<SPAN lang=EN-US>3倍直径就是“深孔”,而微钻的孔深一般都要超过这个限度。&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>如直径为<SPAN lang=EN-US>3.175mm的钻头加工孔深31.75mm的孔,长径比达10:1;而直径为0.508mm的钻头加工孔深25.4mm的孔,其长径比达到50:1。所以,随着钻头直径减小和脆性的增加,挠曲便成为产生很多问题的根源。而控制钻头的脆性,就要在刀具基体的硬度和韧性之间加以权衡。&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>一般说来,高速钢钻头容许有一定的挠度并能承受相应的弯曲力,但是,高速钢具有的这种弹性变形能力和较低的硬度,也使其耐磨性降低,从而限制了刀具的寿命。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>而硬质合金则具有高刚性和高硬度,所以能使刀具寿命较长、加工精度较高。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>M.A.Ford制造公司的钻削生产部经理Joe&nbsp;Kueter指出,硬质合金的高耐磨性使其制成微钻后速度达到高速钢的3倍,且寿命也能提高;同时,硬质合金的高刚性有助于正确定位和保持孔的尺寸。<o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN class=px141><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; LETTER-SPACING: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 宋体; mso-hansi-font-family: 宋体"><FONT face=宋体>然而,硬质合金也不是万能的,刚性高会使其容易崩裂。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>Guhring公司的现场销售工程师Peter&nbsp;Jones指出,用M35钴高速钢做微型钻头,可以在硬质合金和普通高速钢(M2、M7)之间取得较好的折衷。他说:“切削时在孔中产生热,加上刀具的辗压,使切削刃变钝,并划出沟道,最终导致工具损坏。而较高的含钴量,使M35的抗热性增加,并能较长时间保持刀刃锋利。”<o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>此外,硬质合金钻头需要仔细地安装和使用,精确的同心度特别重要,因为不同心造成的侧向负荷会导致钻头崩裂。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>三菱金属材料<SPAN lang=EN-US>(美国)公司的铣削和钻削部高级生产经理Larry&nbsp;Brenner建议:应尽量在钻头旋转的机床(如加工中心)上使用微钻,他指出,加工中心的主轴能给予钻头正确的中心线定位,而车床上工件的偏心会导致钻头挠曲。因此,假如在车床上使用微钻,则必须把每个影响同心度的因素事先调整好,特别对硬质合金钻头更要注意,因其不能适应弯曲变形。&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>假如在车床上使用微钻,最好把刀具转塔的安装孔重新镗一刀,并且使用可调式镗孔刀夹,以便把钻头和工件的同心度调至最佳状态。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>Brenner进一步指出,要把刀夹的跳动降至最小限度。为此,应首选热缩性刀夹,其次是液压刀夹。要求刀夹套筒端面处的最大跳动值在0.005~0.0076mm范围内。&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20.1pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.05pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><FONT face=宋体><STRONG><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: teal; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt">消除初始定心误差</SPAN></STRONG><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; COLOR: teal; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>任何钻头工作时,开始几转至关重要。因为开始切削时,钻头承受偏心力。此外,工件表面的不规则形状会引起横向滑步,导致刀具弯曲、折断,或者至少是增大孔的偏差。<SPAN lang=EN-US>&nbsp; <o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>对于直径<SPAN lang=EN-US>3mm以下的钻头,三菱公司建议先用刚性好的定心钻打一个深度为1~2倍直径的初始孔。定心钻的钻尖顶角应等于或大于最终钻孔的微钻顶角。若定心钻的顶角较小,则随后微钻切入时,两切削刃比顶尖先接触工件,容易引起崩刃。<o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>如果不用定心钻,则可采用这样的方法:使微钻开始切入时的进给量远低于随后的正常进给量。例如钻头直径<SPAN lang=EN-US>1.613mm,孔深12.7mm,正常进给量规定为0.0508mm/r,开始用0.0127mm/r的进给量推进0.254mm,也可推进到刃带开始接触工件,然后再转为正常进给。这种办法同样可防止钻头滑步。<o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"><FONT face=宋体>Brenner指出,微钻使用中的另一挑战是要尽量提高转速,以发挥生产潜力,但就最大转速规范而言,钻头往往走在机床的前面。有的机床在其最高转速下运行,仍未达到微钻的最佳切削速度。例如直径为1mm的钻头,切削速度达到91.44m/min,要求机床主轴转速达到28000r/min。&nbsp;</FONT></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN lang=EN-US style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt"></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">被加工材料的硬度,对于确定微钻切削速度和进给量的初始推荐值有很大影响。例如,<SPAN lang=EN-US>M.A.Ford公司推荐:用直径为1.32mm的整体硬质合金钻头加工1018低碳钢(20HRC)时,其切削速度选用91.44m/min,进给量选用0.038mm/r。但是该钻头加工塑料和合成材料时,切削速度可达198.12m/min,进给量达0.127mm/r。加工难加工材料(如</SPAN></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ascii-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-hansi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">镍</SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">基合金、钛合金<SPAN lang=EN-US>)时,切削速度仅为15.24~18.29m/min,进给量仅为0.0305mm/r。</SPAN></SPAN></P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA"><SPAN lang=EN-US></SPAN></SPAN>&nbsp;</P>

<P style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LAYOUT-GRID-MODE: char; TEXT-INDENT: 20pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-char-indent-size: 10.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align: none"><SPAN style="FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.5pt; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: ''Times New Roman''; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA"><SPAN lang=EN-US></SPAN></SPAN>&nbsp;</P>

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